England has sports in college but they’re not like college sport in the US.
For football specifically (and my example is more on the men’s side because setups are pretty uniform whereas in the women’s side it really depends on the backing but the overall approach is the same just less professional I guess) teams will have their own youth systems and players will go through the ranks (from like U8s, U10s, U12s etc) and then either get an academy scholarship* (I believe that’s like 15/16- 18 years old) and then they either get a professional contract or be released by the club. Aside from GCSEs and A-Levels I don’t believe many male players go further studying while playing (with the exception of their coaching badges)
*Again in women’s football it’s a little different here. I don’t know if they use the term scholarship. But if they’re still good enough they will progress in the U16s and U18s. The next step up is again a contract (players in the unders can play for the 1st team) but whether it’s a professional contract depends on if the club is in the WSL or if not, whether the club offers a professional or semi professional contract. Female players will often attend Uni or study alongside playing football because obviously it’s not as financially viable as the men’s game.
This is a bit more basic than it actually is obviously but even with that it’s long.